Marx, Freud , Nietzsche



god as drug ~ god as dummy ~ god as dead

Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.

The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo.

Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers on the chain not in order that man shall continue to bear that chain without fantasy or consolation, but so that he shall throw off the chain and pluck the living flower.

—Marx: Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, 1843

But man’s helplessness remains and along with it his longing for his father, and the gods. The gods retain their threefold task: they must exorcise the terrors of nature, they must reconcile men to the cruelty of Fate, particularly as it is shown in death, and they must compensate them for the sufferings and privations which a civilized life in common has imposed on them.

—Freud: The Future of an Illusion, 1927

At bottom God is nothing more than an exalted father.

—Freud: Totem and Taboo, 1913

God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him. Yet his shadow still looms. How shall we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us? What water is there for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of atonement, what sacred games shall we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we ourselves not become gods simply to appear worthy of it?

—Nietzsche: The Gay Science, 1882

Newton 1642-1727 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1687

Kant 1724-1804 Critique of Pure Reason 1781

Hegel 1770-1831 Phenomenology of Spirit 1807

Darwin 1809-1882 On the Origin of Species 1859

Marx 1818-1883 Communist Manifesto 1848 Das Capital 1867

Nietzsche 1844-1900 Gay Science 1882

Freud 1856-1939 Interpretation of Dreams 1900

Presented by Anne to PhiloSophia, 30 April 2013, at the Gaelic Club, Sydney.


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